sixteen tu The latest REFLEXIVE PREFIX When you look at the ZULU – A TYPOLOGICAL Position Sonja E. Bosch In this article I’ll investigate the brand new origins of your own reflexive prefix into the Zulu, using special attention towards the procedure for grammaticalization for which lexemes turn into grammatical formatives. Just like the reflexivization in a number of Bantu dialects was opposed, this article are typically in the type of good typological data. In the Lehmann s () discussion of one’s phenomena that are commonly referred to as reflexive, it is fascinating to note which he assumes on four categories of reflexives, particularly 0) autophoric nouns being ordinary nouns such as for example human anatomy, breathing, heart, direct you to ple, for the Sanscrit the fresh new noun dtman definition breath, spirit, plus in Basque, the brand new noun burua definition direct, are used to display the equivalent of English thinking. Autophoric nouns utilized just like the reflexives are usually accompanied by an excellent possessive pronoun, such as next example away from Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani fuel:acc lay:area getting energy when you look at the himself (ii) reflexive nouns being nouns declaring the definition care about and absolutely nothing more, for instance the German selbst me and you may Finnish itse because the portrayed from the following the advice: 344
17 Italian language (2) Ich komme selbst I am future me personally Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-quand? want-2.sg-int admission-acc.pl thinking-all-poss.2.sg Would you like the newest tickets yourself? During the languages eg Finnish, Hungarian and you may Turkish reflexive nouns bring possessive affixes, during almost every other dialects like Italian language and/or Relationship languages, these nouns aren’t normally in conjunction with possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns which have the key reason for it comes back again to the niche, including the German sich during the: German (4) Sie waschen sich He could be laundry themselves (iv) spoken reflexives which can be verb affixes showing the step for some reason has an effect on the topic, as in the second examples: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-find the guy watched themselves Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di guy wash-refl-past the child sparkling himself Lehmann () stresses your borders between your classes are fluid and you can claims why these five types of reflexive elements are now on the a measure regarding expanding grammaticalization.
This basically means, you can discover that it due to the fact a great continuum out of change that can feel illustrated below: 345
18 Lexical goods Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) brings instances in different dialects in order to instruct the alterations having taken place or remain taking place in one classification in order to next. The procedure of alter try verified of the Faltz () who, for his morphological difference in a couple head kind of reflexives, specifically NP-reflexives which may feature a nominal morpheme becoming direct of your reflexive noun words, and you can spoken reflexives, composed of reflexive pronouns which can be cliticized on the verb, remarks: Languages may go from one pole to your other, indeed, like way is actually always from the NP-reflexive pole to your verbal reflexive pole. Inside the Zulu reflexiveness try knew in the shape of an excellent prefix which privately precedes the fresh verb stalk. The fresh new reflexive prefix are invariable fit, and therefore it’s a beneficial morphological contour and therefore remains lingering despite the class that the antecedent belongs. That is certainly depicted regarding the after the instances during the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya the brand new-guy he-himself smack the boy strike himself (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the new-girl she-herself-see in-echo Her notices by herself about mirror In these instances -zi- is the reflexive morpheme therefore the actions out of struck and watch is actually directed back up on the newest particular grammatical victims, which is, man and you will girl. It is interesting one to from inside the generative knowledge, a critical notion is done with the hidden build out-of sentences with which has reflexives, namely NP1 – V – NP1. On the surface, such as for example a construction was ungrammatical about Bantu dialects should your a few NPs is actually co-referential and you will the same in form, age.grams. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho duped Sipho In Zulu such as for example a phrase is generated grammatical because of the insertion regarding good reflexive prefix on the verb and you can this new removal of your co-referential noun. age.g. 346